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DEVELOPING COUNTRIES



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Ghana

In meeting with Abby from Ghana we learned about the viability of implementing solar ice in the small rural communities that currently lack refrigeration systems. We also discussed the application of solar ice in different regions throughout Ghana. There is some very dry places in Ghana and a long dry season. Crops are mostly grown during the rainy season, excess is stored or dried for the dry season. Ares of Ghana seem ideal for the solar ice design model. Ghana a body of water where fishing occurs. Meat is also eaten occasionally and the solar ice system would be especially great for storing meat and highly perishable goods longer and maybe into the dry season. Solar ice can also make meat and perishable food sales possible over a longer period of days at unreduced costs and turn profits for locals.
A covered aquaponics system would be required to maintain the amounts of water needed during the dry season. In order to prevent all the water from evaporating during the dry season the system would need to be covered. Covering the aquaponics system for part of the year would allow shady preference crops to be grown. The aquaponics system would allow some crops to be grown during the dry season, improving the diets and access to varied nutrients. Lastly, the aquaponics system could be used for locals to grow cash crops that could allow them to earn money through the sales and create more demand for solar ice system in communities.

Demographics of Ghana
According the to the CIA World Factbook, in 2015, about 54% of the population lived in urban areas, with the rate of urbanization happening at 3.4% for the five years prior. Here are a few more statistics about their current energy economy:
population without electricity: 7,300,000
electrification - total population: 72%
electrification - urban areas: 92%
electrification - rural areas: 50% (2013)

The importance of this demographic is that it assumes that there is a large demographic of people in rural areas without electricity (and likely refrigeration).

And of their electricity produced, which runs around 13 billion kWh, the county is reported to use 9.2 billion kWh. This discrepancy may or may not account for

exports and imports. Their energy comes mostly from hydroelectric production (about 54.6% in 2012), and the remainder from fossil fuels (45.4%) And most

importantly, in 2015 the single highest economic issue was the lack of consistent electricity.

Climate and Agriculture data:
SE Coast: tropical; warm and comparatively dry
SW: hot and humid, this is where the majority of agricultural and small-scale farming operations currently exist

Northern Savannah: Hot and dry, with a rainy season peaking in August to September (1 - 1.4m rainfall total). The area is suitable for livestock rearing, as well as for crops such as yams, rice and millet. Shea and kola nuts are also harvested here.


Agriculture Land: 69.1%: Arable land 20.7%; Permanent crops 11.9%; Permanent pasture 36.5%; Irrigated land:340 sq km (2012)
(perhaps include climate graph with community specific data?)




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How a person's food supply correlates to their electricity use. Ghana appears to eat an average amount of food while using a similar amount of electricity compared to the rest of the world.










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Uganda

Following the AIDAfrica presentation, we learned that Uganda has a very long wet season ideal for growing crops throughout most the year and many problems with food storage perishable food. Uganda also has some regions where fish are readily available. In addition to fish, another highly perishable nutrient dense food is meat (mostly cow). Both animal proteins go bad quickly, forcing people to sell the excess they have in the moment at very low costs, yet have scarce amounts of it over time. Uganda is another ideal testing grounds for the application of solar ice. The ability to store perishable goods for longer periods of time would allow families and communities to eat the foods they harvest for longer amounts of time. It may also lead to a possible adoption of an Easterly model of teaching the people to maintain their food stores and even developing a business model of a family grocery or for storage space. This could earn a small sustainable profit and stimulate a micro-economy allowing the people in Uganda to better their lives through skills and practices they can implement.
Another factor that makes Uganda ideal for the solar ice system is the large amounts of ground water. These stores can be easily tapped into for the aquaponics system. An aquaponics system would keep some crops above the flood planes during the extensive rainy season and allow crops to be grown in more shaded or controlled environments. This regulation could lead to greater yields and nutritional benefits by having access to a more varied diet regularly. Excess water could also be a readily available alternative in the system as a freezer coolant.
Materials that could be used include those that are locally and readily available. Ideally low cost and common throughout the region. An insulating mechanism like the ones used by Cal Poly Students on the Solar-Powered Cooker project could be used to insulate a space for cooling foods.
please include something from Gapminder.
CIA:
Climate:tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeastLand use:agricultural land: 71.2% arable land 34.3%; permanent crops 11.3%; permanent pasture 25.6%Irrigated land:140 sq km (2012)

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